Plumbing - the not so modern history
Plumbing was very rare until modern cities grew in the 19th century. At about the same time, public health leaders began wanting better systems to get rid of waste. Before this, people got rid of waste by collecting it and dumping it onto the ground or into rivers. However, there were some plumbing pipes in the city settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C. Plumbing was also used during the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they built public baths and needed drinking water, and somewhere to drain waste. The Romans used pipe inscriptions to stop people from stealing water.
These systems did not improve much over the years. There were almost no improvements from the time of the Roman aqueducts and lead pipes until the 19th century. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems got rid of open sewage ditches and cesspools. Most large cities today send solid wastes through pipes to sewage treatment plants. Treatment separates water from waste and makes the water more pure before it goes into streams or other bodies of water. Most places stopped using lead for drinking water after World War II because of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was started because it was safer than using lead pipes.
Pipes, Tubes... The things we use for plumbing
Water systems in ancient times used gravity to move water. They used pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo or stone. Today, water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper, brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material. Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead is not used in pipes today because it can be poisonous.
The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. A pipe is usually made by casting or welding, where a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe usually has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, where tubes have thinner walls, and needs special joining techniques such as 'brazing', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.
As well as the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions.
Plumbing fixtures are designed for the people who use the water. Some examples of fixtures include water closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye wash stations.
Self-repairing ruptured pipe
Manual repair is a way to get rid of the fault, which is used by many of us. Often it can be done very easily, but if they relate to the hydraulics, better be careful. It is not easy to replace a broken pipe or repair the faulty seal, because in this case a better choice would call good service hydraulic, who will do everything professional and efficient. Such companies can now find almost everywhere, so instead undertake to repair the personal risk and higher costs, it is better to entrust this task good art. It is they who fix everything as it should, without causing additional problems.