Pipe - basic facts
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow ? liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.
In common usage the words pipe and tube are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards.1 While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is often made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term "tube" is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e., square or rectangular tubing. In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more widely used in the United States.
Both "pipe" and "tube" imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a hose (or hosepipe) is usually portable and flexible. Pipe assemblies are almost always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, tees, and so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations. For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed, or where construction is governed by codes or standards, tube assemblies are also constructed with the use of tube fittings.
mandatory replacement of boilers
Usually when putting a new unit for use in all apartments are mounted so the boilers operating on gas or electricity. The task plumbers will not only be mounted boilers in all apartments, but also a thorough check of their safety and to adapt their work to the accepted standards. The equal time derogation will also be checking the efficiency of the installed boilers and gas leaks associated with their work. Residents should report to the administration failures resulting in their boilers and replace them only on those that are admissible in blocks for security reasons. Building administrator may also instruct mandatory exchange of the boilers, which ceased to function well.
Carrying out the vote before the renovation
When a residential building administrators will notice that there is a need for its repair hydraulic, then join the collection of funds needed for this purpose. They may come from the so-called. repair fund or will temporarily raise the rent. Before joining the fundraiser will have to obtain the consent of residents to take such steps. They perform, so you need a vote on one of the meetings with residents and cooperative will be able to proceed with the execution of the repair only after obtaining the consent of the majority population. Residents who do not give their consent for the renovation will be excluded from it. However, mandatory will be carried out such plumbing, which will serve to prevent the creation of a large block of water leakage.