"ICEV" redirects here.
For the form of water ice, see Ice V.For the high speed train, see ICE V. Diagram of a cylinder as found in 4-stroke gasoline engines.: C ? crankshaft. E ? exhaust camshaft. I ? inlet camshaft. P ? piston. R ? connecting rod. S ? spark plug. V ? valves.
In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine.The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle.
Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler.ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft, and boats. Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil.
There's a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines.
In 2-stroke crankcase scavenged engines, the interior of the crankcase, and therefore the crankshaft, connecting rod and bottom of the pistons are sprayed by the 2-stroke oil in the air-fuel-oil mixture which is then burned along with the fuel.
The valve train may be contained in a compartment flooded with lubricant so that no oil pump is required. In a splash lubrication system no oil pump is used.Instead the crankshaft dips into the oil in the sump and due to its high speed, it splashes the crankshaft, connecting rods and bottom of the pistons.
The connecting rod big end caps may have an attached scoop to enhance this effect.The valve train may also be sealed in a flooded compartment, or open to the crankshaft in a way that it receives splashed oil and allows it to drain back to the sump. Splash lubrication is common for small 4-stroke engines. In a forced (also called pressurized) lubrication system, lubrication is accomplished in a closed loop which carries motor oil to the surfaces serviced by the system and then returns the oil to a reservoir. The auxiliary equipment of an engine is typically not serviced by this loop; for instance, an alternator may use ball bearings sealed with its lubricant. The reservoir for the oil is usually the sump, and when this is the case, it is called a wet sump system.
When there is a different oil reservoir the crankcase still catches it, but it is continuously drained by a dedicated pump; this is called a dry sump system.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
Some knowledge in this area is necessary, for example when driving course, but a lot of people quickly forget obtained message.It is worth it to remember, especially because it's easier, we can use the machine as we know it..